Author Alevtina Gall discussed the use of traditional medicine by Ethiopian patients with Dr. Information was also obtained through a literature review that included studies of patient-health care provider relationships and current scientific data regarding chemical interactions of herbs and conventional drugs.Celtic goddess of dance
The first recorded epidemic that occurred in Ethiopia dates back to following the expulsion of Abba Yohannes, the head of the Ethiopian church, from the land. It is impossible to pinpoint the birth of medicine in Ethiopia, but certainly the evolution of curative practices closely follows the path of a disease. Traditional medical practitioners mostly implement herbs, spiritual healing, bone-setting and minor surgical procedures in treating disease.
Ethiopian traditional medicine is vastly complex and diverse and varies greatly among different ethnic groups.
Under the rule of Menelik Western medicine became significantly more incorporated into the Ethiopian medical system. Numerous medical envoys from abroad, starting with the Italians and Russians, were influential in building hospitals, providing medical training and participating in vaccination campaigns.
However, most medical establishments primarily served the urban elites and foreign missionaries and were concentrated in the major cities Pankhurst, Despite Western medicine becoming more widespread in Ethiopia, Ethiopians tend to rely more on traditional medicine.
Conventional medical services remain concentrated in urban areas and have failed to keep pace with the growing population, keeping health care access out of reach for most Ethiopians living in Ethiopia. Moreover, Western medicine has become more focused on preventative measures and people seeking curative practices still rely on indigenous medicine as the primary source for health care Pankhurst, The influence of traditional medicine is also seen in Ethiopian migrant populations.
In countries with substantial Ethiopian immigrant populations, traditional herbs, medical devices, and practitioners are readily available Papadopoulos, Most immigrants who come from countries that rely on traditional medicine continue to use that form of medicine in conjunction with the use of conventional medical facilities. Despite the prevalence of self-medication in immigrant populations and the potential for adverse herb-drug interactions, relatively few studies have assessed these risk factors in various groups.
One recent study looking at the use of herbal medicine in Hispanic immigrants found that In North America the Ethiopian immigrant population is more diffuse, thus, traditional medical practitioners TMPs may be inaccessible and cultural misunderstandings may compound frustration with the conventional medical system Hodes, Despite the lack of TMPs, herbal remedies are easily obtained and widely used by the immigrant population.
In many cases Ethiopian patients use traditional remedies in combination with prescribed conventional medications for related or unrelated health conditions without informing their physician. Ethiopian patients who use traditional medicine and do not inform their health care providers may do this for several reasons.Bella apparenza donna gianni marra sandalo nero
They may be self-treating an unrelated illness and do not think that it is significant. For instance, a widespread Ethiopian remedy for the common cold involves the consumption of large quantities of garlic and ginger, which has the potential to interact with anti-coagulant, hypoglycemic, and cholesterol-lowering medications refer to following table.
Patients may feel that they will be judged by their physicians if they disclose their use of traditional medicine Shenkute, Cultural differences in understanding and treating symptoms of illnesses may contribute to patients feeling misunderstood by their health care providers and being more likely to seek satisfactory treatment in the form of traditional medicine Hodes, As national borders become more porous and the movement of people more widespread it is increasingly more important for health care providers to be aware of the cultural background of their patients.Ethiopia announced that it found traditional medicine for covid 19 Ministry of Innovation and Technology, Ministry of Health and traditional medicinal practitioners announced that they have approved a traditional medicine that was tested on humans and animals since the covid 19 outbreak was in December Abraham Belay, Minister of Innovation and Technology, told Capital via text message that the country traditional medicine experts developed the medication for the virus that has not yet have official medication all over the world.
Sign in. Log into your account. Forgot your password? Password recovery. Recover your password. Get help. Capital Ethiopia Newspaper. Home Local News Ethiopia announced that it found traditional medicine for covid Local News. Ethiopian Airlines furloughs crew as virus crisis continues.
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As the world grapples with the unprecedented nature of the COVID pandemic, the equally frightening spread of misleading information is making scientists and public health experts specifically, and the general public at large, less focused on the most important tools we have at hand to mitigate the spread of the virus i. The list of new drug targets and interventions against COVID is expanding, which should not be surprising, and is good news.
For many reasons, if they work, they are the better options we have for now.
In general, a new drug development process is a huge time-sink as it takes a minimum of years to be approved for treatment and clinical uses.
Of the different classes of the repurposed drugs that are currently in clinical trials, the century-old antimalarial drug, chloroquine and its derivative hydroxychloroquine have garnered substantial attention in the world. While applauding such messages of hope, renowned scientists in the world have converged in gathering enough evidence from the ongoing randomized clinical trials before any approval for mass use.
Currently, over interventional COVID clinical trials are ongoing and the results of some of these studies are anticipated to be released next month. Among these registered clinical trials, some of them, not surprisingly, are using traditional Chinese medicines and natural honey to treat COVID; it will be interesting to see the results of these trials, too.
As per the press release, this "new drug" was discovered in collaboration with the Ethiopian traditional medicine experts. Unfortunately, there was a concern about the announcement and the discrepancy with the follow up information circulating in different media outlets.
It is perplexing knowing the extent of the public anxiety as well as the time consuming and complexity of de novo drug development processes. Despite that we all welcomed the initiative and are excited by the news, accurate communication in consultation with the experts involved in the development process is as essential as the work being done on the ground to curtail the COVID spread.
The Role of Traditional Medicine in Healthcare. For thousands of years, humans have used medicinal plants, mineral, and animal derivatives to prevent invading foreign agents, and to alleviate physical as well as mental illnesses based on the beliefs and experiences of indigenous cultures of a given society - otherwise known as traditional or folklore medicines. Ethiopian traditional medicine - alike others, such as traditional African, Indian, Islamic, and Chinese medicines - is one of the widely recognized practices.
In fact, Ethiopia is one of the few countries that recognized its value and continued to carry out scientific research on medicinal plants and drug development. Such integration is exceedingly needed. Providing resources and supporting the mutually nonexclusive traditional and modern medicines in the pursuit of novel drug development will not only improve health but it can also boost the economic growth of the country.
Natural products have long been an important source of drug molecules for example, antibacterial; penicillin, cardiotonic; digitalis glycosides, and antimalarial; quinine and artemisinin. Thus, modern drug discovery programs owe much to the natural products pipeline for investigational drug development.
It is well known that it is not the crude plant extracts, but the painstakingly strict guidelines and technologies requiring bioactivity-guided fractionations and subsequently development of therapeutic armaments that profoundly hinder drug development from natural products.
Another caveat is that most of the investigational plant-derived inhibitors often fail to advance for clinical use because of loss of their efficacy and poor safety profile during drug development processes. The fact that the Ethiopian Ministry of Innovation and Technology and Ministry of Health took the initiative to develop a "new drug" in collaboration with a team of traditional medicines experts in a short period is a well-received news.
We all appreciated the initiative. However, the lack of preliminary data discussion and scientific explanation about the effectiveness and tolerability of the alleged inhibitors by the scientists who carried out the antiviral activities took many by a surprise.
Legitimate scientific arguments, request for the underlying evidence, and brainstorming are essential in any scientific research, let alone in times like this, when the shelf life of our new knowledge on COVID is so short and changes constantly. The constructive criticisms raised on different media outlets after the press release should have been carefully studied; however, they were dismissed and at best ignored. We all want to see this exciting and new development to succeed; not all the criticisms raised were belittling or grandstanding against the efforts of the Ethiopian traditional medicine experts and traditional healers.
In these times of crisis, giving hope is not an unreasonable message, but holding a press conference on a de novo developed inhibitor as a "new drug" for COVID treatment by stating that it was ready for both animal studies and human clinical trials is a false hope and worst of all misleading the people. Instead, just like all the other interventional COVID clinical trials being conducted across the globe, announcing the initiation of a clinical trial using Ethiopian traditional medicines would have been a sound approach.
The press release and the follow up messages have already created heated discussions among concerned citizens who have very little information. Admittedly, none of us are experts about the SARS-CoV-2 virus; however, we understand how long it takes and anticipate potential hurdles for any therapeutics being developed.Ethiopia is one of the six centres of biodiversity in the world with several topographies, climatic conditions and various ethnic cultures.
Ethnobotanical study is a real and encourageable in rich biological resource areas for medicinal plant identification, documentation, ranking, conservation and sustainable usages.
The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective medicinal plants for specific treatment through priority ranking and to assess the status of the transfer of Traditional Botanical Knowledge TBK based on age groups and educational levels.
Ethnobotanical data were collected using field observation and semi-structured interview, A total of 30 key informants and community members were interviewed and data on medicinal plant species and associated knowledge were recorded, quantified and verified using several preference ranking methods. The study revealed a total of 49 medicinal plant species belonging to 31 families and 46 genera used to treat various human ailments, the majority of which 40 The Ghimbi people possess rich ethno-medicinal knowledge.
This study can be used as a basis for developing management plans for conservation, sustainable use and drug development. Moreover, the investigation of herbal drugs from plants to treat AIDS, cancer, and malaria, chronic complaints such as rheumatism, arthritis and asthma have been reported [ 3 - 5 ]. Herbal remedies are enjoying widespread popularity throughout the world [ 67 ]. Of these, more than Use and management of many medicinal plants in Ghimbi district has been reported by [ 15 ].
However, this former study does not provide sufficiently detailed information on the status of Traditional Botanical Knowledge TBK transfer from generation to generation based on Oromo Gada system age groups and educational levels as wells as on the ranking of most potential medicinal plants for specific disease treatment in the study area. The present study was therefore to identify those potential and popular medicinal plant species used for the treatment of various diseases in Ghimbi area by Oromo community.
Generally the district has a total area of Km 2. Ghimbi is one of the 21 districts in the Zone having 31 administrative peasant associations or Kebels. Ghimbi is the Capital of the District. Metrological data taken from National Metrology Service Addis Ababa indicates that the major rainy seasons in the district include spring Maysummer June-August and autumn September —October.
Ethiopian Traditional Medications and their Interactions with Conventional Drugs
The study area is found within the range of masl. This variation in altitude resulted in variability in climate, vegetation types, and cropping system. Based on the National census the total population of the District was about 79, of which 38, are males and 40, are females.
Rural peoples of the District lead their life on cropping and livestock rearing. Afan Oromo which is the official language of the state region is the most major spoken language in the zone. Amarigna the second most spoken language in the zoneand Guragigna are also spoken by few populations in the zone [ 16 ]. Prior to reconnaissance survey an official letter was received from Jimma University Ethical Review Committee ERC while verbal informed consent was obtained from each informant who was participating during the study period.
The study sites were selected based on the prior information gathered from community leaders, knowledgeable elders, health workers, and number of traditional healers in the area, Therefore, the study was carried out in three attitudinally varying study sites. The informants were identified with the help of Kebele leaders, Developmental Agents DAs and knowledgeable elders. Thirty traditional healers 22 men and 8 women 5 to 6 from each study site with the age of 30 and above were included as key informants to obtain pertinient information while less than 30 age groups were considered to determine the status of knowledge transfer from elders.
Ethnobotanical data was collected from November to February on three field trips made to the site based on methods given by [ 1718 ]. Accordingly, semi-structured interviews and field observation with informants were employed to obtain indigenous knowledge of the local community.Traditional medicine also known as indigenous or folk medicine comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
The World Health Organization WHO defines traditional medicine as "the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness".
When adopted outside its traditional culture, traditional medicine is often considered a form of alternative medicine. Scientific disciplines which study traditional medicine include herbalismethnomedicineethnobotanyand medical anthropology. The WHO notes, however, that "inappropriate use of traditional medicines or practices can have negative or dangerous effects" and that " further research is needed to ascertain the efficacy and safety" of several of the practices and medicinal plants used by traditional medicine systems.
In the written record, the study of herbs dates back 5, years to the ancient Sumerianswho described well-established medicinal uses for plants.
The Traditional Foods of the Central Ethiopian Highlands
In Ancient Egyptian medicinethe Ebers papyrus from c. Many herbs and minerals used in Ayurveda were described by ancient Indian herbalists such as Charaka and Sushruta during the 1st millennium BC.
Early recognised Greek compilers of existing and current herbal knowledge include Pythagoras and his followersHippocratesAristotleTheophrastusDioscorides and Galen. Some fossils have been used in traditional medicine since antiquity. Arabic indigenous medicine developed from the conflict between the magic-based medicine of the Bedouins and the Arabic translations of the Hellenic and Ayurvedic medical traditions.
The most famous Persian medical treatise was Avicenna's The Canon of Medicinewhich was an early pharmacopoeia and introduced clinical trials. The Unani system of traditional medicine is also based on the Canon. Translations of the early Roman-Greek compilations were made into German by Hieronymus Bock whose herbal, published inwas called Kreuter Buch. Women's folk knowledge existed in undocumented parallel with these texts.
Both Hernandez and Ximenez fitted Aztec ethnomedicinal information into the European concepts of disease such as "warm", "cold", and "moist", but it is not clear that the Aztecs used these categories.
It was translated into German in and Italian editions were published for the next century. In 17th and 18th-century America, traditional folk healers, frequently women, used herbal remedies, cupping and leeching.
The prevalence of folk medicine in certain areas of the world varies according to cultural norms. Indigenous medicine is generally transmitted orally through a community, family and individuals until "collected". Within a given culture, elements of indigenous medicine knowledge may be diffusely known by many, or may be gathered and applied by those in a specific role of healer such as a shaman or midwife. Traditional medicine may sometimes be considered as distinct from folk medicine, and the considered to include formalized aspects of folk medicine.
Under this definition folk medicine are longstanding remedies passed on and practiced by lay people. Folk medicine consists of the healing practices and ideas of body physiology and health preservation known to some in a culture, transmitted informally as general knowledge, and practiced or applied by anyone in the culture having prior experience.
Many countries have practices described as folk medicine which may coexist with formalized, science-based, and institutionalized systems of medical practice represented by conventional medicine. Generally, bush medicine used by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia is made from plant materials, such as bark, leaves and seeds, although animal products may be used as well. American Native and Alaska Native medicine are traditional forms of healing that have been around for thousands of years.
A home remedy sometimes also referred to as a granny cure is a treatment to cure a disease or ailment that employs certain spices, vegetables, or other common items. Home remedies may or may not have medicinal properties that treat or cure the disease or ailment in question, as they are typically passed along by laypersons which has been facilitated in recent years by the Internet.
Many are merely used as a result of tradition or habit or because they are effective in inducing the placebo effect. One of the more popular examples of a home remedy is the use of chicken soup to treat respiratory infections such as a cold or mild flu. Other examples of home remedies include duct tape to help with setting broken bones; and duct tape or superglue to treat plantar warts ; and Kogel mogel to treat sore throat.
In earlier times, mothers were entrusted with all but serious remedies. Historic cookbooks are frequently full of remedies for dyspepsiafevers, and female complaints. In Chinese folk medicine, medicinal congees long-cooked rice soups with herbsfoods, and soups are part of treatment practices. Although countries have regulations on folk medicines, there are risks associated with the use of them. It is often assumed that because supposed medicines are herbal or natural that they are safe, but numerous precautions are associated with using herbal remedies.
Endangered animals, such as the slow lorisare sometimes killed to make traditional medicines.According to the Innovation and Technology Minister, the lab research phase of the project is completed.
The next step is testing the product. Based on information from the Ministry, it is not a cure. It is said to boost immunity to fight the disease and is free from toxicity. The Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Innovation and Technology and Hakim Abebech, Ethiopian traditional medicine expert, held a joint press statement in the capital Addis Ababa regarding the product.
The research is underway as per World Health Organization standards, said Dr. Abraham Belay, Minister for Innovation and Technology. And relevant Ethiopian authorities believe that the project is promising and the product could soon be available for the public. The Ministry said that it would announce once the product gets clearance.
The number of confirmed Patients in Ethiopia has reached 16, although there are fears that the number could be much higher if the test is administered. Join the conversation. Like borkena on Facebook and get Ethiopian News updates regularly.Busting garlic cures and other false coronavirus claims
As well, you may get Ethiopia News by following us on twitter zborkena. Ethiopiatraditional medicine. I hope and pray that this claim by those crack heads will never reach the ears of major global media outlets. Would somebody please, please, please these officials to just shut up and let others think they have suddenly turned into jackasses!!! I wish they spend their time advising the citizens about the simple measures they can take to stem the rate of infections by this scourge.
I am not saying that no one should engage in finding a cure or even a vaccine for the virus but that should be done in the kitchens of medical research labs. It is ok to talk about the effort but with no affirmative promises until there is an ocular proof for its efficacy. Also I am not belittling or discounting traditional medicines.
They deserve modern scientific reviews and duly thorough trials in labs. I am also aware that some might have been used as starters for some drugs used to treat people.
Many of them have also been discovered to be toxic at the first intake or to pose health issues later in life. But this one being rushed into the limelight is beyond pale. I wish they will prove me wrong, dead wrong! If that happens I will throw myself down at their feet asking for forgiveness on this esteemed website. What has got hold of these officials? Ok, by the power vested in me by me I am ordering these officials to see a shrink right away, not tomorrow but now as we speak!!!
What the world are we coming to? Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Leave a Reply Cancel Reply Your email address will not be published.Metrics details. A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants.
Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally.
An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past.
A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation.
There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes that support the sustainability of herbal medicine traditions may be considered as a way to collect and disseminate information thereby supporting communities in their efforts to maintain their heritage.Asus monitor usb ports not working
This study contributes to the documentation of the status of current traditional herbal knowledge in Ethiopia. Ethiopia has been described as one of the most unusual and important sources of biodiversity in the world [ 1 ], yet is perilously close to losing much of this rich diversity due to deforestation, land degradation, lack of documentation of species in some areas as well as of traditional cultural knowledge, and potential acculturation [ 2 — 5 ].
Intertwined with the irretrievable loss of important species of animals and plants is the risk of loss of traditional herbal medicine knowledge. An estimated 80 to 90 per cent of Ethiopians use herbal medicine as a primary form of health care [ 6 — 9 ].
Despite significant recent improvements in modern health care, many rural communities continue to have limited access to modern health care due to availability and affordability [ 1011 ]. It is widely acknowledged that the wisdom of both professional and lay healers in applying traditional medicine to support health and manage illness may be lost to future generations unless urgent efforts are made to document and disseminate the knowledge [ 3471213 ] and to engage the younger generation who may no longer be interested in learning the traditional methods [ 4714 ].
Therefore Ethiopians, particularly those in rural areas, face an uncertain future in regard to ready access to affordable modern medical services and access to their traditional remedies. Herbalism is one aspect of traditional medicine practice in Ethiopia as it is in many other countries [ 15 ].
Herbs have traditionally been used in the home to treat family sickness, and occasionally traditional healers may be consulted. Traditional healers may be from the religious traditions of Cushitic Medicine, regional Arabic-Islamic medical system, or the Semitic Coptic medical system practiced by Orthodox Christian traditional healers [ 3 ], who are also referred to in Amharic as debteras.
There may be many variations in approach within each system [ 16 ].View 1 replies
Spiritual methods are often used in combination with herbal applications particularly by the debterasand the knowledge is traditionally passed down through the male line. This study examined whether i knowledge was transferred to the current generation of lay community members in Fiche, ii lay people are knowledgeable about the medicinal use of herbs, iii lay people continue to practice herbal medicine in the treatment of sickness within the home.
An aim of the study was also to determine whether or not there is enthusiasm for the preservation of knowledge and skills for future generations. The ethnobotanical survey that constituted part of this research helped to identify the plants used by local community members, for future planting in their household and community gardens. To our knowledge, no ethnobotanical exploration had previously been conducted in this area personal communication, TA. The information gained from this study may inform further studies and projects aimed at documenting herbal knowledge in communities and supporting continued practice and sustainability of traditional herbal medicine in Ethiopia and elsewhere.
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